自1979年以来, 合乐888登录注册基金 是否将支持的重点放在年轻人的过渡时期——失去所爱的人以及从初中到高中的过渡时期. 除了资助这些领域的项目, the Foundation has worked to convene experts to share their perspectives. 冠状病毒为培养儿童和年轻人的韧性提供了机会, 本文是合乐888登录注册基金会(new York Life Foundation)名为“咨询专家”(问 the Expert)的新系列文章的一部分.’

Whenever a community or national tragedy unfolds in the public spotlight, 美国人准备好迎接铺天盖地的文字和图像,它们将主宰电波,直到下一场危机来临. 而许多网络和有线电视可能会采取适当的措施来避免出现令人不安的和/或, 图形文字和图像, it can be challenging to avoid the ongoing reporting, 社交媒体的评论, and conversation among friends and family that follows. 冠状病毒也不例外, 因此,在未来几周,我们如何保持警惕,监控我们的家庭将消费的媒体“饮食”? 

限制你摄入

研究人员1 发现通过媒体接触恐怖事件会对儿童的情绪功能和对世界的认知产生负面影响. 对于那些最近经历过损失的人, 家人生病, 或另一个危机, 观看和阅读与冠状病毒相关的故事和节目可能会让人从这些早期事件中找回感觉. 鉴于这些发现, it is important for adults to limit media consumption while their children are in the house. Children under seven years of age should not watch any programming or news reports. Older children and teens should avoid watching disturbing news or programming after 6:00 p.m. Such programming can overstimulate children and impede restful sleep.

对社交媒体的重要考虑

While families attempt to monitor television programming in their homes, 社交媒体带来了新的挑战. 研究人员2 探索了社交媒体对儿童和青少年的影响,发现社交媒体可以影响一个人的幸福感, and possibly have an impact on social circles offline. We also know that young people use social media to support each other during times of loss3. In fact, they may need these digital connections more than ever. Yet, it is still important to monitor when and what young people are reading and watching. Here are several points to consider when your child or teen uses social media:

  • Find out what social media apps or websites your child uses. 监控他们花在应用上的时间. Include them in the decision-making of how much time is too much.
  • 讨论一下如何使用表情符号, as they cannot be a substitute for face-to-face interactions or written words, 但它们可以加强和鼓励对话.
  • Discuss the difference between factual communication, opinion, and gossip. 你可能想引用博物馆指南 新闻博物馆家庭教育指南
  • Encourage children and teens to communicate by telephone or by using video apps; while social distancing, it is important to hear from and see friends and 家庭成员.
  • 记住,年龄较大的儿童和青少年和年龄较小的儿童一样容易受到可怕信息的影响.

开始一个对话

观看任何与社区或全球危机有关的节目之前,应该先进行家庭讨论, 成年人应该尽可能地监控孩子们在手机和电脑上的所见所闻. Here’s how to start a conversation about the coronavirus:

  • 孩子/青少年从朋友那里听到的, 其他家长, 同学们, 和媒体)以及他们有什么问题.  
  • Have factual information about the kinds of symptoms caused by the coronavirus, 谁受到的影响最大, and methods for prevention and treatment at the ready to answer their questions.
  • 给适龄的反应. 5岁以下的儿童无法了解病毒的性质,而11岁左右的儿童可以了解疾病的机制以及可能导致疾病的其他因素(其他健康状况).
  • 描述冠状病毒的症状与儿童已经经历的(感冒或流感)有关. 他们会想知道当人们感染病毒时会发生什么,我们必须诚实.
  • Acknowledge feelings of loss and concerns about a shrinking social environment. 对于那些正在经历春季“里程碑”事件(比如毕业)的年龄较大的青少年来说,这种情况可能尤其严重, 申请大学, and the cancellation of group sports and other experiences.
  • 关注帮助者, 我们社区的人们, 政府领导人, and health care providers who are assisting everyone.

和家人一起看

强烈建议学龄儿童/青少年,任何年龄都不应该只看任何危机/灾难相关的节目, 而是应该和有爱心的成年人一起看, 家庭成员, 与好朋友. Here are some tips for watching coronavirus programming with children:

  • First determine if the program will be appropriate for a child (age, personal experience). 通过和孩子/青少年一起看,你会知道节目的确切内容以及信息的背景.
  • 观察孩子的反应(流泪), 坐立不安, 哭, 非常安静, 甚至“愚蠢”的言论或行为). These may be signs that a child is experiencing intensified fears or anxieties.
  • Watch for sleeplessness, stomach distress, 哭, or worrying about safety and security. 
  • 不要问:“你还好吗??或“你不高兴吗??相反,指出你注意到的行为,并问他/她在想什么或有什么感觉, “我看到你有点安静, 告诉我你在想什么.”
  • While you’ve likely explained social distancing to your children, explain that those in the same household can still be close to one another. Offer comfort and security to a child or teen through physical proximity. 

分享你的想法

After you and your family consume information about the coronavirus, 说话 about it and how you and your children are reacting–physically, as well as any emotions and thoughts you are feeling/having. Plan time to 说话 in a quiet, comfortable, and familiar place. 

  • Don’t let children/teens go to bed without having a chance to 说话, 即使你认为他们看起来“不错”.”  
  • 分享个人的想法和感受. Don’t hesitate to open communication with your own reactions. 如果你哭了,不要试图掩饰,而要承认这件事影响了很多人.  
  • However, be confident about safety and security issues. Children take their cues from adults and how they respond to media; they will watch adult behavior and determine if they really are safe. Praise children when they suggest their own hopeful and positive thoughts.
  • 承认儿童/青少年的感情. 认识、接受并尊重孩子的感受. 让他们知道其他人也有同样的感受. 
  • Provide reassurance regarding safety and security in simple, age-appropriate words. Don’t give false reassurance; be realistic and honest without being an alarmist. 

致力于自我保健

让孩子和青少年知道,当我们处理不舒服的感觉时,有方法让我们感觉更好. 

  • Help them identify what provides relief and support. 
  • Encourage them to use those strategies, especially 说话ing to others about their feelings.
  • 睡前读/讲一个最喜欢的故事, 提供最喜欢的食物或饮料, 播放最喜欢的或放松的音乐, 给/得到一个拥抱, 说话, 这取决于你的信仰, 祈祷或冥想.

检查

Take the time to check in with yourself and your family on a regular basis.

  • How did your family sleep, were there any dreams, disturbing thoughts, etc.?
  • 从你的孩子那里得到提示,保持交流畅通,但不要强迫他们谈论病毒的话题. 警惕他们的非语言暗示.
  • 不要一开始就看手机更新,或者和朋友谈论下一个病例,或者那些生病或被隔离的人的“号码”.
  • Have a peaceful non-news breakfast as everyone gets ready for their day. 

世界正在努力应对冠状病毒(新型冠状病毒肺炎)的传播,并适应新的日常生活, 在这个充满挑战的时刻,平衡我们的新闻消费和支持亲人的承诺至关重要. 现在,我们比以往任何时候都更必须了解对我们家庭健康至关重要的重要信息. 我们还必须保持警惕,观察我们的孩子对媒体上的文字和图像的反应. We can interpret what they see and hear and reassure them. 我们还可以利用关键信息,不仅能让他们保持健康,还能让他们感到安全.

唐娜一. Gaffney, DNSc, PMHCNS-BC, FAAN 是合乐888登录注册基金会的顾问,在恰当的术语、理解和与悲伤的家庭沟通方面提供专家建议和指导. 她是一名心理治疗师, 作者, 他是一名教育家,长期以来一直在研究与失去有关的孩子和家庭中改变生活的各种经历, 创伤, 和压力. 在9/11个人和国家悲剧的余波中,她为年轻人和学校提供咨询, 桑迪, 和卡特里娜飓风. 除了学术论文, 唐娜是《合乐888登录注册》一书的作者, 帮助孩子在失去中成长. She taught at Columbia University and holds master’s degrees from Teachers College, Columbia University; Rutgers University, and a doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania. 她的博士后工作包括哥伦比亚新闻学院保诚儿童和新闻奖学金. 唐娜也是亚利桑那州立大学适应力育儿项目的顾问.
 

来的人,我. S.水垢,J. M.北大,R. S.、Babyar H. M., & 肯德尔,P. C. (2008). Media use and children's perceptions of societal threat and personal vulnerability. 临床儿童杂志 & 青少年心理学37(3), 622-630.

布鲁格曼·海伦娜,阿兰·范·希尔,吉多·范·哈尔, & 斯蒂芬·凡·通根于. 2019. “Does the use of digital media affect psychological well-being? 一项针对9到12岁儿童的实证测试.” Computers in Human Behavior 101 (December): 104-113.

Wandel T. L. (2019). Losing a Friend: Social Media's Impact on Child and Adolescent Grief. In Handbook of Research on Children's Consumption of Digital Media (pp. 24-40). IGI全球.


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